Navy Overhauls Phalanx Ship Defense Weapon

091227-N-1291E-121The U.S. Navy is pursuing a massive, fleet-wide upgrade of its shipboard defensive weapon designed to intercept and destroy approaching or nearby threats, the Phalanx Close in Weapons System, service officials said.

The Phalanx, or CIWS, is an area weapon engineered to use a high rate of fire and ammunition to blanket a given area, thus destroying or knocking threats out of the sky before they reach a ship. The Phalanx CIWS, which can fire up to 4,500 rounds per minute, has been protecting ship platforms for decades.

The weapon is currently on Navy cruisers, destroyers, aircraft carriers and amphibious assault ships, among other vessels. The upgrades are designed to substantially increase capability and ensure that the system remains viable in the face of a fast-changing and increasingly complex threat environment, Navy officials said.

The overhaul includes numerous upgrades to the weapon itself, converting the existing systems into what’s called the Phalanx 1B configuration. At the same time, the CIWS overhaul includes the development and integration of a new, next-generation radar for the system called the CIWS Phalanx Block IB Baseline 2, Navy officials explained.

The Navy is currently installing both Phalanx CIWS upgrades on ships. The plan is to have an all CIWS Phalanx Block IB fleet by fiscal year 2015 and an all CIWS Phalanx Block IB Baseline 2 fleet by fiscal year 2019, said Navy spokesman Lt. Kurt Larson.

An upgrade and conversion of an older CIWS Phalanx configuration to Phalanx Block IB averages around $4.5 million per unit and a Block IB Baseline 2 radar upgrade kit averages $931,000 per unit, Larson said.

The Phalanx Block IB configuration incorporates a stabilized Forward-Looking Infra-Red (FLIR) sensor, an automatic acquisition video tracker, optimized gun barrels (OGB) and the Enhanced Lethality Cartridges (ELC), Larson said.

“Block IB provides ships the additional capability for defense against asymmetric threats such as small, high speed, maneuvering surface craft, slow-flying fixed and rotary-winged aircraft, and unmanned aerial vehicles,” Larson said. “The [forward-looking infrared sensor] also improves performance against anti-ship cruise missiles by providing more accurate angle tracking information to the fire control computer.”

The OGB/ELC combine to provide tighter dispersion and increased first hit range, he added.

“The Phalanx 1B fires Mk 244 ammunition, the Enhanced Lethality Cartridge specifically designed to penetrate anti-ship cruise missiles,” said Al Steichen, Business Development, Raytheon Naval and Area Mission Defense.

The Mk 244 ammunition is engineered with a 48 percent heavier tungsten penetrator and an aluminum nose piece, according to information from General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems.

The Phalanx Block IB Baseline 2 radar upgrade is a new digital radar that provides improved detection performance, increased reliability and reduction in sailor man-hours for system maintenance, Larson said.

“It mitigates obsolete components inherent in the existing analog radar by introducing COTS-based signal processing coupled with a new signal source and mixer,” he said.

The Baseline 2 radar also provides the Phalanx CIWS with “surface mode,” meaning it adds the ability to track, detect and then destroy threats closer to the surface of the water compared with previous models of the weapon, Steichen explained.

“It now gives the warfighter the ability to address surface threats which we have not had before,” he said.

In practice, this means the Phalanx equipped with Baseline 2 radar will have an increased ability to defend against fast-attack boats and low-flying missiles, projectiles and aircraft.

About the Author

Kris Osborn
Kris Osborn is the managing editor of Scout Warrior.
  • sickunclesam

    Sounds as if the US Navy is concerned about Chinese anti-ship cruise missiles, and small fast attack boats. At least they are trying to get a head of it. I would feel better if we would also suddenly hear about how the navy is once again taking anti-submarine warfare seriously again too.

  • Captain Obvious


    • blight_

      Not Huntington Ingalls, Bath Iron Works, Newport News?


    US NAVY will soon be as TOUGH as ADMIRAL “BULL” HALSEY!!!

    • shipfixr

      ….Whose real nickname was “BILL”….

  • Big-Dean

    yep, it seems that the Navy has awaken from it’s 15 year slumber (after the Russian fleet went away)

  • joe

    The key phrase in thw whole thing is probably “mitigates obsolete components”. Capability enhancements are a bonus no-one will turn down, but if the thing ain’t supportable its gotta be refitted or replaced.

    Faster, lower antiship missiles and big (relatively), slow-moving (relatively) rotorcraft and small boats are such a wide target variety that I’d just file the improvements under “just plain better” rather than necessarily saying it’s being optimised for a specific role.

  • samuel wilson

    Cant they just have drones that sit out in the ocean about 100 meters from the ship and when a missile attack comes in the drones take flight and lift a net up 100m so all missiles will just hit the net? The drones can be cheap and recoverable. The net can be cheap and recoverable and repaired easy. A light elastic super strong material. Then you could put the nets up either side of the carrier like a corridor which would still allow the aircraft to take off.

  • d. kellogg

    The only real shortfall here is that the Phalanx is still a 20mm system.

    For the performance gain in just stepping up to 25mm, as is standard in USMC LAVs, the USN Mk38 gun (or any system using the M242 Bushmaster chain guns), and now the F-35 (if/when they actually have a gun),
    the Phalanx woulda been better served stepping up to use the same 25x137mm NATO ammo.
    The 25mm gun family currently is the tried-and-trusted 5-barrel GAU-12 of the USMC Harrier, and the 4-barrel GAU-22 that select F-35s will get.
    It would be little effort to engineer 6- or even 7-barrel optimized designs to get even higher rates of fire suitable for CIWS roles.

    • Thomas L. Nielsen

      No development needed.

      OTOBreda (now OTO-Melara) and Oerlikon co-developed the Myriad CIWS using two (count ’em…two) 25mm 7-barrel Oerlikon KBD Gatling guns (
      It never entered service, but I see no reason it couldn’t be resurrected.

      Or if 25mm is a little too wimpy for you, go straight to the Goalkeeper CIWS, mounting a 30mm GAU-8 (

      Regards & all,

      Thomas L. Nielsen

      • d. kellogg

        I know of them both,
        but I was looking at “recycling” the Phalanx footprint, if not as much of the actual hardware as possible.
        The original SeaRAM does just that: utilizes the Phalanx components all except the gun and ammo system, which is replace with a RAM missile container.
        The Phalanx sensors actually outrange the gun’s effective range by considerable margin: it’s why it works with the RAM missile.…

        My preference would be swapping in a 5-barrel 25mm (GAU-12, ~3600RPM), or even develop a more optimized 6- or 7-barrel (higher rate of fire),
        that won’t take up as huge a footprint (and above-deck weight) as the much larger Goalkeeper and Myriad systems do (which need external ship’s sensors for detection and direction).

        • drone

          One could also retain the 20mm and develop an APFSDS round for it.

          A more aerodynamic projectile with higher sectional density would fly faster for longer, and penetrate deeper. You could also replace rifled barrels with smoothbores, giving you even higher velocities due to the reduced friction.

          Basically everything that worked for modern tank guns could be scaled down to 20mm.

    • orly?

      Smaller caliber, more ammo.

    • oldtcs

      I’ve been out for 20yrs, so maybe I missed something, but has cheese-whiz EVER failed to kill anything it hit? The upgrade looks like just a tighter pattern, and a different projectile. Sounds good to me. Is there a performance gap somewhere that has to be addressed?

    • HardwareFreak

      > The only real shortfall here is that the Phalanx is still a 20mm system.

      A larger caliber weapon would only gain range. The 20×102 @4500 SPM is plenty lethal at a sufficient standoff distance to prevent enemy weapons from hitting the ship.

      The key design point of the original Phalanx CIWS was that it could be welded to the deck anywhere there is physical space for the weapon mount. Plug the cables in and you’re done. It was designed to be compact in order to mount the most boat types not only in the US fleet but allied fleets as well, and capable of working on smaller craft as the recoil forces aren’t extremely high.

      The 25mm and 30mm rotary cannon are so large, bulky, and have such high recoil, that they must mount through the deck, greatly limiting the the number of guns that a ship can mount, and limiting the mounting location to basically the bow and the stern. For evidence of this simply take a look at the European ships that mount the Goalkeeper.

      For any ship that mounts two Goalkeeper units, one bow, own stern, it’s usually possible to mount 6 or more Phalanx guns with overlapping fields of fire. Given the turret speed of the Goalkeeper and the lower ammunition load, a peroper wave formation of missles in a saturation attack would be successful as the guns would run out of ammo. This is much less likely with 6 or more Phalanx guns as each carries more ammo, you have 3x or more guns, and the number of rounds to kill a target missle are the same for 20mm and 30mm weapons.

      • JCitizen

        In school I worked on the math for a 37mm Gatling type weapon, that used the old anti-tank round from WWII. It was HUGE, and very impressive, but the thing would probably have cleared the entire deck from all the tremendous gasses it generated! My dynamics teacher was the one that helped create this monstrosity. It was mounted in an old 5 inch naval gun cupola. He said it was an ecstatic experience to see it go off!

        • d. kellogg

          Oddly enough, the US did at one time consider a 37mm rotary cannon (gatling gun) as an air defense system.
          (scroll down to the Vigilante system…)

          • JCitizen

            Very interesting site! The one we looked at was similar to the tank turret example, but much more massive. It would only fit on an old world naval battle cruiser! I wished I had a link, but I’ve since forgotten the name of the research program, and even the professor who headed the project. Too much brain damage - O.o

    • frank ricciardi

      Liked your coment but (and Im asking)sint a rule of thumb the smaller the caliber the higher the cyclic rate or rate of fire the CIWS is a last ditch effort to save one of our ships I know the 25mm round has more propellent ,but isint the mas of steel and the tungsten penetrator from the 20 mm enough of a pattern if they upgrade the radar? I dont know if cyclic rate applies to a multi barrel weapon lets just say rate of fire . and have you read abuot the sucsess the army has had deploying these around FOB for in comming ordinance

  • Joe Lupinski

    While the upgrade is nice are they finally going to pull their heads out of their behinds and start fully equipping ships with this system? A lot of the new Arleigh Burkes didn’t even have them installed claiming that newer missiles will be able to shoot down any incoming threat….. no offence thats fine but I would think you want a back up if that doesn’t work. In the end they ended up putting at least one on the rear of almost all of the ships. That’s great so if the missile is coming at you from head on you need to turn 180 degrees as a last resort to do anything about it? Great planning guys.


      Actually you only need to make a 30-45 degree turn and you are set.

      • Jmm

        That and the ship is moving so the rear is the most logical place to expect to receive an attack

        • Rest Pal

          why is Arleigh Burkes’ rear end the most logical place to expect an attack?

  • franklin

    COTS signal processing likely means faster but more delicate, almost certainly not the least bit EMP hard, possibly using materials not approved for mil parts, eg pure tin solder…there may be reliability reductions over time.

    • d. kellogg

      Even though the COTS acronym stands for Commercial, Off-The-Shelf, it doesn’t alway mean civilian-side commercial products.
      It can just as well pertain to already-available military components that are already in inventory, don’t need further research to reach production, and can be incorporated into different applications without considerable additional expense.

  • Alvin, US Navy (R)

    About time the 1B’s are finally getting to all of the ships. The COTS upgrade has been in the works for some time. COTS is needed to phase out a very good system but an older high maintenance system. The lower the maintenance the fewer personnel required for the ship to have onboard. Which means fewer of our sons and daughters in the line of fire.

    As far as upgrading to a 25 mm, this would defeat the purpose of having a self-contained small foot print system that can be replaced in short notice in time of conflict. Take a look at the Goal Keeper which utilizes the GAU-8/A Avenger 30 mm (A-10 gun) for example that requires two decks and a magazine 3 times the size and weight. There really is no compromise with the 25mm. 20mm is the optimal size round. besides the round is actually smaller since the round is in a sabot. It just uses the punch of the larger 20mm cartridge.


    I’m glad they still have the Phalanx CIWS,weren’t they talking a few years ago with replacing all Phalanx with Sea Sparrows as CIWS?

    • Guest

      I think RAM was supposed to replace Phalanx. But for some reason, Phalanx keeps
      on truckin’. Is it because 20mm rounds are cheaper than missiles?


        Maybe cause Phalanx works….

      • orly?

        Tbh, its also easier to reload.

    • Rest Pal

      Sea Sparrows are far more expensive than Phalanx, and yet as ineffective as Phalanx against all but the most primitive models of anti-ship missiles.


      naaaah! That was a Russia Wish List :)

  • Matt

    One thing never mentioned is the ammunition load. I think it is a great asset but carries very few rounds for what we are told these days will be a very saturated environment. How long does it take to reload? Seems impossible to add more ammo base on current configuration.

  • hibeam

    An automated robotic system. I thought they were too dangerous? Why not a few sailors inside that dome to make it safe for all mankind?

  • pleuris

    One word…Goalkeeper….

    • orly?

      Which is just a larger CIWS…

  • john

    The problem has never been the effectiveness of the Phalanx. The problem has been making sure it’s turned on. The ships that have been hit by missiles have had their CIWS turned off most of the time.

  • Big-Dean

    I prefer the 2BXL version they used on “Battleship” they never seems to run out of ammo ;-P

    I think the USS Sampson could’ve use one ;-P

  • tr-usnr

    we need it for phillipine navy ships

    • Amarjit Singh Bajwa

      The Navy of the Philippines understandably needs these “self defence” systems most urgently, due to the aggressive Chinese deployment very close to their territorial waters. The Philippines Armed Forces seem to be the worst equipped of all the nations that have territorial / border disputes with China. It would have been a different story if USA had thought of the long term implications, when withdrawing after the Vietnam debacle. Retaining the Clarks Air Force Base, while closing down Subic Bay, would have been a more pragmatic step, specially when the future rise of China was already foreseeable !

      • Rest Pal

        You don’t know what you are talking about.

        The dispute between the Philippines and China / Taiwan are nothing more than a few scattered rocks in the shallow South China Sea. Unlike the US and Japan, which have tried to colonize the Philippines in the past, China has never demonstrated even a remotely comparable aggression toward the country.

  • Mark

    How about use changeable magazines of this system.…

    • blight_

      I wish metalstorm would die.

  • DB Cooper

    COTs mean commercial off the shelf. It cuts down developmental time. Sounds good but the military typically doesnt test the crap before they issue it. I see it on the military commo all the time. They buy it and no one ever tests it to see if it works as billed or where its going to fail. I have no doubt that to save money and time the navy didnt bother with testing.

    • blight_

      COTS works when COTS is “close enough” or “good enough” for military applications. I’m sure a number of electronics in commercial use can be made available to specifications that closely overlap military requirements. In those cases, reinventing the wheel is a waste of time. For instance, if the Army wanted to buy automobiles, it would be a waste of time to issue an RFP for a new design of automobile instead of buying a fleet of Ford or Chevy vehicles. But there is no COTS for thinks like tanks and strategic bombers, in which case they must be built to suit, possibly with COTS bits and pieces.

  • d. kellogg

    COTS components are nice,
    but we need also consider where the near-term future can go as well.

    Query Mobile Centurion, it’s the HEMTT-mounted Phalanx utilized in the C-RAM role defending military bases.
    Now look at this EAPS system, under development (and looks good so far),
    but the actual weapon mount occupies the same footprint of the Phalanx, complete with AESA modules that have the potential to replace the Phalanx “R2D2” dome.…

    Steerable 50mm shells have a considerable range and damage advantage over anything 20-30mm.

    • Amarjit Singh Bajwa

      If one is looking at 50 mm, then why not save costs by adapting the currently available 57 mm from BAE ? It should also reduce development costs for miniaturization of various components. However, the basic question is whether one wants a target kill with a “direct hit” into the target that achieves warhead destruction / detonation, or a “proximity”burst that causes damage through blast and fragmentation. The latter may not stop the incoming threat “dead in it’s tracks” So, what will be the “end objective” of the steerable projectile fired from this 50 mm, or 57 mm gun ?

      • d. kellogg

        Years earlier (mid 1990s), when they were still called UDLP (United Defense) prior to BAE acquisition, they were working on a 60mm ETC (Electro Thermal Chemical) gun system firing command-guided shells, that also fit into the Phalanx footprint; it actually DID use the Phalanx trunnion assembly for some time.
        Point being, development of guided shells in these calibers predates today’s attempts.
        Ford Aerospace and Vought were even tinkering with guiding 40mm shells in the late 1980s for the now-forgotten M247 Sgt York twin 40mm DIVADS.
        I’m just surprises there has been no mention whatsoever anywhere about BAE furthering the UDLP guided shell development into the 57mm gun.

        The premise of the 50mm weapon, was it uses a “hybrid” variant of the reliable Bushmaster Chain Gun family.

        I still have the product data sheet from UDLP on the 60mm ETC, but nothing is out there on the web. The EAPS program is easily found though.

        • d. kellogg

          With regards to airburst versus direct impact kill, the 40mm and 57mm Bofors/BAE guns can both utilize the same impressive 3P fuze system, and the shells have an optimized prefragmentation design (tungsten pellets and an internally-scored shell wall that bursts apart in a more desireable pattern than just random fragmentation).
          Pretty stuff here:

          The 57mm in USN service does (or will) utilize a US-designated variant of the 3P fuze.
          The last I knew of the 50mm EAPS projectile, it used a forward-focused multi-fragment explosively formed penetrator, directing molten fragments in a forward cone capable of destroying missiles, rockets, and even artillery and mortar shells. Against aircraft the effect would be downright impressive.

          • drone

            Also worth mentioning the OTO-Melara Dart:

          • drone

            As a side note, the claimed penetration of the APFSDS 40mm round of >120mm RHA is mind blowing. If such ammunition had been developed during the second world war, many heavy tanks would have been vulnerable to relatively light guns, which could have been autocannon like the twin 40mm guns on the M42 Duster.

          • d. kellogg

            I agree.
            But what is of real interest is that they suggest the 40mm has “optimized” growth potential as much as 50% more…
            180mm pen? that’s 7 inches.
            (In the case of Bushmaster gun development, “optimizing” generally has referred to better case designs of length, diameter, and shoulder/shell neck taper, and newer more more modern propellants).

            Good lord, and we’re satisfied with merely settling on 25 and 30mm guns for AFVs and shipboard use?

            I love the looks of that LEMUR-Whatever turret there with the multitude of guns.
            As impressive as it looks on that Bradley hull, I can only then suggest, why isn’t such a weapon system the preference for the LCS Surface Warfare Module and the Mk46 (MK44 30mm) turret system on the San Antonios?

            Ther LCS would certainly be much better served by it than just 30mm turrets.
            And what about as a considerably formidable upgrade for those Cyclone-class patrol boats?

    • William_C1

      Impressive concept. I seem to recall an earlier one which featured a similar system on the M993 launcher and featured additional Stinger launchers. Is this related to that?

      • d. kellogg

        Boeing has refined the Avenger turret system to be multiple-weapon capable: missiles from the Stinger to Sidewinder and Hellfire can be mounted, those 70mm rockets with laser guidance, and guns from the 1000rpm 50-cal M3 to the the “new” LW25 Chain Gun that fires smarts grenades like for the 25mm “Punisher” and the crew-served OCSW/ACSW (M307) machine gun grenade launcher.
        Current developments have been utilizing Sidewinder airframes with a new guidance section for use as a C-RAM system.

        I’ve always thought that this should be an ideal route to pursue: aircraft have used stores pylons capable of multiple weapons types for decades, so why not something for ground units.
        Or even, a multiple-weapon-capable launcher like this would be an ideal system to give an LCS a lot more firepower, and the Avenger pedestal/turret is not a large system at all.

  • M Flynn

    Recently a Russian warehouse full of new Russian anti-ship missiles was mysteriously and completely destroyed in Syria. Multiple Israeli cruise missiles fired from a submarine was suspected, with US assistance. There were definitely no planes in the sky.

    It was reported that they skim the surface at 2 1/2 times the speed of sound and that NATO and US ships have no defense against them.

    The Phalanx is only roughly aimed. It is not accurate at all. It is like a shotgun. The smaller and faster a missile is, the more likely it can get through the shot pattern created by the phalanx. Since it is a question of probability, we can expect that many anti-ship missiles would be fired simultaneously.

  • phil marks. ex navsea

    When they are on and working, they don’t miss. I know, I worked on them.

    • John Ritenour

      I was stationed at PERA ASC in the Norfolk Naval Shipyard in Portsmouth, Virginia. When I was there we still had the Newport Class LST’s, LPD’s, LSD’s, LPH,LKA’s and LHA’s. The LHA’s had Sea Sparrow, & the Phalanx. The rest of the classes only had 2 CIWS Mounts, except for the LST’s which only mounted 1. The PHALANX isn’t perfect - but it is a good system. Also -many folks asked why we didn’t buy the Goalkeeper, Millennium Ahead System, etc. The answer is simple - cost and shipboard footprint. Whereas most navy’s had to buy only 20 or 30 systems at the most, The USN had buy over three hundred total. Plus, compared to the other systems, the shipboard footprint of Phalanx is a lot smaller. Phalanx doesn’t require deck penetration or significant alterations to the ship. All you need is 440 and 60 cycle power, cooling water, and a compass input. That is a lot less than most other comparable systems.

  • phil marks. ex navsea

    When they are on and working, they don’t miss. I know, I worked on them.

    • Rest Pal

      stop spamming false claims please.

  • phil marks. ex navsea
  • John Moore

    I thought the effectiveness of CIWS was the tight feedback loop between the radar tracked target and the radar tracked outbound projectile stream. CIWS doesn’t just “blanket an area” - it is a precision weapon.

  • Paul Aguilar

    Hypothetically……what if an enemy were to fire a barrage of ‘dumb missiles’ then the ship killer behind them. Would the Cwiz be able to distinguish the big bad dude from the pesky little dudes? Or will the Cwiz simply shoot @ everything……….including the fragments of missiles already destroyed?

    • meflynn

      Paul, are you bucking for promotion to admiral? Clever strategy.

    • Rest Pal

      Why would any US CiWS need to distinguish decoys from armed missiles when the CiWS can’t track and shoot either?

      The CiWS on US naval vessels are not there to stop incoming missiles - they are there simply to make the sailors feel better.

      • Larry Zane Neff

        You are sadly mistaken my friend,,,,Coming from a CIWS technician with 6+ yrs experience.. A CIWS weapon system can search, track, and engage a target the cross sectional size of a coke can moving at over two and a half times the speed of sound.. It can also take target designations from the Aegis weapon system that can track over a hundred targets at once..Yes, the sailors feel better..because it is there…When left to it’s own internal system the CIWS cannot distinguish from friend or foe, but if you are in a situation that warrants you putting it into full auto, then there is no time to distinguish between either…If it comes at the ship in a threatening manner(Those parameters are pre set) It WILL kill them…And shoot the little pieces that are left flying..THAT I PROMISE YOU!!!

    • John Ritenour

      CIWS has a low speed and size gate in the radar. So it won’t track chunks of a missile below a certain size and/or speed. They also fixed the issue where it would lock onto helo blades as well. Because of the nature of the system, CIWS doesn’t have an IFF (Identification Friend or Foe) - if you are a plane and you approach the ship above a certain speed and phalanx is turned on - it will evaluate you as a threat and proceed to open fire.

  • mikeDee
  • mikeDee
  • Bob Miller FCC

    As a plankowner in the CIWS project it still remains as effective as ever, “IF IT FLYS, IT DIES” was the credo on the 3 ships I sailed with CIWS. The rest just happens. We always called it the 8 second war. I was lucky to either 3 or 4 systems on my ship. Wardroom jitters was my biggest problem….

  • galloglas

    Has even one CIWS ever been used in actual combat?
    If RoE set high above the Captain of the ship doesn’t release CIWS weapons free then Bubba it ain’t a gonna work.
    Waste of effort.

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